e) What are "article processing charges" (APCs)?

An article processing charge (APC) is a type of publication cost which applies to authors wishing to publish their work in Open Access, either in an OA journal or in a "hybrid" journal. APCs may be paid by the author, institution or any other funding partner. However, paying an APC does not mean that the authors retain the copyright to their work or that the latter has been made available under a Creative Commons licence.