Improving the efficacy of antibiotics and curbing resistance
New findings from NRP 72, financed by the Swiss National Science Foundation, are helping to curb antibiotic resistance. In the field of new antibiotics, however, structures needed for translating results into practice are lacking.
Worldwide, more and more pathogens are becoming resistant to today’s antibiotics. As antibiotics lose their efficacy, infections that were once easy to treat can give rise to fatal illnesses. The National Research Programme "Antimicrobial Resistance" (NRP 72), financed by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), is looking for ways to counteract this trend. In 45 projects, researchers have revealed new findings and developed new instruments. "They are thus creating a basis on which we can deliver a powerful response to the threat posed by antibiotic resistance," says Joachim Frey, President of the NRP 72 Steering Committee. "But scientific innovation doesn't implement itself – partners from practice, industry and government are needed".
Transmission paths of resistance revealed
Antibiotic resistance spreads between human beings, animals and the environment. Until now, it was almost impossible to trace these transmission paths. Thanks to new gene sequencing technologies, the NRP 72 researchers have discovered major interfaces, e.g. the transmission of multi-resistant pathogens from animals to veterinary clinic staff, or elevated resistance concentrations in rivers downstream from sewage treatment plants. Based on these findings, targeted action can be initiated.
So that these data can be used to rapidly detect the spread of resistance across the entire human-animal-environment biological system, researchers have developed a new portal: the Swiss Pathogen Surveillance Platform (SPSP) provides a basis on which the genetic information on bacterial pathogens can in future be linked and analysed. The SPSP already proved its worth during the Covid-19 pandemic, when it delivered ongoing analyses of Sars-CoV-2 variants (instead of the bacterial pathogens for which it was designed).
Instruments developed for more responsible use of antibiotics
The resistance problems are worsened by the incorrect or unnecessary use of antibiotics. Therefore the researchers working on NRP 72 have developed tools and interventions to support professionals when they prescribe antibiotics. In veterinary medicine, for example, an online tool known as AntibioticScout has become established in practice. In human medicine, a number of real-world studies have demonstrated steps that can be taken to improve antibiotic prescribing.
Crucially, rapid tests are needed which enable doctors to select the correct antibiotic – or none at all. In several NRP 72 projects, researchers developed accelerated test methods, some of which are already being used in practice.
The greatest effect, however, can be achieved by prevention: where there are no infections, drugs are not needed. The aim of preventive measures against antibiotic resistance is therefore to curb the transmission of bacterial pathogens overall. In this context, a new approach to calf fattening has shown particular potential: by adopting prevention measures, the “outdoor calf” system avoids infections and reduces antibiotic use by around 80%.
New active substances found
Even if we succeed in preventing antibiotic resistance from occurring and spreading, there will still be a need to continually develop new antibiotics. In fact, there is already a high demand for new active substances right now. In NRP 72, researchers discovered a number of such substances and developed them in the laboratory. These include both naturally occurring and synthetically manufactured substances, as well as the targeted use of components of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) that combat pathogens. The successful projects show that academic research can systematically deliver new approaches for effective antibiotics.
Good prospects for implementation in many areas – but with a major catch
Many of these findings can be implemented in existing structures. At national level, the antibiotic resistance strategy (StAR) provides a suitable framework within which the federal government can initiate appropriate measures and coordinate the relevant key players. "But in many areas it will also need much closer involvement by other parties," says Joachim Frey. "In both human and veterinary medicine, the cantons must be willing to provide the necessary resources for targeted programmes to improve antibiotic use."
While he is nevertheless confident in this respect, he sees much bigger hurdles that need to be overcome for the development of new medicines. Since antibiotics currently generate little or no profit, the industry partners that would be needed to develop the new substances to market-ready drugs after the research phase are not coming forward. "This is not an issue that can be resolved through scientific findings," says Joachim Frey. Rather – as the programme summary of NRP 72 states – the government would need to act: it should create conditions in which the development of these products, which are so crucial for modern medicine, is economically viable again.
Steering Committee of NRP 72 (2022): Summary of the National Research Programme “Antimicrobial Resistance” (NRP 72), Swiss National Science Foundation, Bern.
Helmut Bürgmann et al.: NRP 72 Thematic Synthesis “Routes and reservoirs of AMR-determinants & One Health AMR-surveillance”, National Research Programme “Antimicrobial Resistance” (NRP 72), Bern.
Hanspeter Naegeli et al.: NRP 72 Thematic Synthesis “Optimized use of antibiotics and behavior changes”, National Research Programme “Antimicrobial Resistance” (NRP 72), Bern.
Markus Seeger et al.: NRP 72 Thematic Synthesis “Faster diagnostics and new therapeutic approaches”, National Research Programme “Antimicrobial Resistance” (NRP 72), Bern.
Prof. Joachim Frey
Institut für Veterinärbakteriologie, Universität Bern
Präsident Leitungsgruppe NFP 72
Phone: +41 79 355 07 58
Dr. Helmut Bürgmann
Koordinator NFP-72-Arbeitsgruppe «Routes and reservoirs of AMR-determinants & One Health AMR-surveillance»
Phone: +41 58 765 21 65
Prof. Hanspeter Naegeli
Vetsuisse-Fakultät, Universität Zürich
Koordinator NFP-72-Arbeitsgruppe «Optimized use of antibiotics and behavior changes»
Phone: +41 44 635 87 61 / +41 79 630 73 90
Prof. Markus Seeger
Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Universität Zürich
Koordinator NFP-72-Arbeitsgruppe «Faster diagnostics and new therapeutic approaches»
Phone: +41 78 718 01 68
National Research Programme “Antimicrobial Resistance” (NRP 72)
Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem. For this reason, in 2015 the Federal Council mandated the Swiss National Science Foundation to conduct the National Research Programme "Antimicrobial Resistance" (NRP 72), planned in coordination with the Swiss Antibiotic Resistance Strategy (StAR).
For NRP 72, scientists spent five years researching new approaches in 33 projects at Swiss universities and higher education institutions, as well as in 12 international projects as part of the European Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance (JPIAMR). Their aim was to contribute to
- curbing the spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens
- using antibiotics more responsibly
- improving the treatment of infections with antibiotic-resistant pathogens.